DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PURE SINE WAVE INVERTER SYSTEM
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This project is titled the design and construction of a pure sine wave inverter system. Pure sine wave inverters produce a pure sine wave output. This means the power output from a pure sine wave inverter is the same as the mains supply.
What you may not know is that not all inverters are created equal. The output from many inverters is a modified sine wave, inferior to the 240 volt mains power supply. Pure sine wave inverters produce a pure sine wave output.
A pure sine wave is not only critical for the correct functioning of high end electronic equipment, it will also ensure that appliances run more smoothly, producing less heat and noise.
Pure sinewave inverter take up 12v DC from battery and inverts it to an output of 220v, 50H2 AC. It makes no noise during operation and no hazardous carbon monoxide is generated in the surrounding.
This is a feature that makes it safe to use any were when compared to generator. Also, the circuit is capable of charging the battery (i.e 12v source) when the power from the supply authority is on. This greatly reduces the cost of operation of the system.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
1.3 APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT
1.4 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
1.5 INVERTER RATING
1.6 TYPES OF INVERTER
1.7 IMPORTANT CONSIDERATION FOR INVERTERS
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 REVIEW OF HISTORY OF AN INVERTER
2.2 REVIEW OF HOW TO CHOOSING THE RIGHT INVERTER
2.3 REVIEW OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SINE WAVE AND MODIFIED SINE WAVE INVERTER.
2.4 REVIEW OF INVERTER CAPACITY
2.5 SAFETY OF INVERTER
3.1 BASIC DESIGNS OF AN INVERTER
3.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE SYSTEM
3.3 SYSTEM OPERATION
3.4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
3.5 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
3.6 DESCRIPTION OF COMPONENTS USED
3.7 HOW TO CHOOSE A RIGHT INVERTER AND BATTERY
3.8 HOW TO CHOOSE THE BEST INVERTER BATTERY
4.0 CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE AND TESTING
4.1 CASING AND PACKAGING
4.2 ASSEMBLING OF SECTIONS
4.3 TESTING OF SYSTEM OPERATION
4.4 COST ANALYSIS
A power inverter is a device that converts DC power (also known as direct current), to standard AC power (alternating current). Inverters are used to operate electrical equipment from the power produced by a car or boat battery or renewable energy sources, like solar panels or wind turbines. DC power is what batteries store, while AC power is what most electrical appliances need to run so an inverter is necessary to convert the power into a usable form. For example, when a cell phone is plugged into a car cigarette lighter to recharge, it supplies DC power; this must be converted to the required AC power by a power inverter to charge the phone.
In pure sine-wave, the output voltage of a sine-wave inverter has a sine wave-form like the sine wave-form of the mains / utility voltage. In a sine wave, the voltage rises and falls smoothly with a smoothly changing phase angle and also changes its polarity instantly when it crosses 0 Volts.
Pure sine wave inverters are used to operate sensitive electronic devices that require high quality waveform with little harmonic distortion. In addition, they have high surge capacity which means they are able to exceed their rated wattage for a limited time. This enables power motors to start easily which can draw up to seven times their rated wattage during start up. Virtually any electronic device will operate with the output from a pure sine wave inverter.
Sine wave inverter has the following characteristics:
- High efficiency
- Low standby losses
- High surge capacity
- Low harmonic distortion
All grid tied inverters are pure sine (true sine) inverters, hence the grid, by nature, is a pure sine wave electricity source. The importance of pure sine wave or modified sine wave inverters may be apparent especially for off grid applications such as RV, boat or cabins. Off grid inverters are used for connecting a battery source or a solar PV system to an AC load such as a home applicance, a laptop charger, a TV.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
The output voltage of a sine-wave inverter has a sine wave-form like the sine wave-form of the mains / utility voltage. In a sine wave, the voltage rises and falls smoothly with a smoothly changing phase angle and also changes its polarity instantly when it crosses 0 Volts. The objective of this project is to design and construct a to design a device that will produce a sine wave-form of the mains / utility voltage which is rated 2.5KW which can be powered from the source of 12V battery.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
- Some electronic devices may pick up inverter noise while operating with modified sine waveform. Using fluorescent lighting can be problematic when using modified sine wave inverters. Most of the equipment on the market is designed for use with sine waves. Some appliances, such as microwaves, drills, clocks or speed motors will not produce full output if they don’t use sine wave current, moreover they may damage the equipment. Some loads, such as light dimmers will not work without sine wave at all. It’s safe to say any electronic device that requires sensitive calibration can only be used with pure sine wave inverters
- Pure Sine Wave output is the most compatible AC power from an inverter, and it is the best waveform for all AC electrical appliances.
- Pure Sine Wave output eliminates interference, noise, and overheating.
- Reduces audible and electrical noise in fans, fluorescent lights, electronics gear and magnetic circuit breakers.
- Prevents glitches and noise in monitoring equipment.
- It can be efficiently electronically protected from overload, over voltage, under voltage, and over temperature conditions.
- Inductive loads like microwave ovens and variable-speed motors operate properly, quieter and cooler. Some appliances will not produce full output if they do not use Pure Sine Wave power.
- Some appliances, such as variable speed drills and bread makers, will not work properly without Pure Sine Wave power.
1.4 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
More expensive than Modified Sine Wave power inverters. Physically larger than their Modified Sine Wave counterparts.
1.5 APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT
This study exposes me the applications and uses of a pure sine wave inverter which are as follows:
DC power source utilization
Inverter designed to provide 240 VAC from the 12 VDC source provided in an automobile. The unit shown provides more than 20 amperes of alternating current, or enough to power up to 2KW load.
An inverter converts the DC electricity from sources such as batteries, solar panels, or fuel cells to AC electricity. The electricity can be at any required voltage; in particular it can operate AC equipment designed for mains operation, or rectified to produce DC at any desired voltage.
Uninterruptible power supplies
An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) uses batteries and an inverter to supply AC power when main power is not available. When main power is restored, a rectifier supplies DC power to recharge the batteries.
Pure Sine wave Inverters convert low frequency main AC power to higher frequency for use in induction heating. To do this, AC power is first rectified to provide DC power. The inverter then changes the DC power to high frequency AC power.
HVDC power transmission
With HVDC power transmission, AC power is rectified and high voltage DC power is transmitted to another location. At the receiving location, an inverter in a static inverter plant converts the power back to AC. The inverter must be synchronized with grid frequency and phase and minimize harmonic generation.
A variable-frequency drive controls the operating speed of an AC motor by controlling the frequency and voltage of the power supplied to the motor. An inverter provides the controlled power. In most cases, the variable-frequency drive includes a rectifier so that DC power for the inverter can be provided from main AC power. Since an inverter is the key component, variable-frequency drives are sometimes called inverter drives or just inverters.
VFDs that operate directly from an AC source without first converting it to DC are called cyclo-converters. They are now commonly used on large ships to drive the propulsion motors.
Electric vehicle drives
Adjustable speed motor control inverters are currently used to power the traction motors in some electric and diesel-electric rail vehicles as well as some battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric highway vehicles. In vehicles with regenerative braking, the inverter also takes power from the motor (now acting as a generator) and stores it in the batteries.
An inverter air conditioner uses a variable-frequency drive to control the speed of the motor and thus the compressor.
Electroshock weapons and tasters have a DC/AC inverter to generate several tens of thousands of V AC out of a small 12V DC battery. First the 12VDC is converted to 400–2000V AC with a compact high frequency transformer, which is then rectified and temporarily stored in a high voltage capacitor until a pre-set threshold voltage is reached. When the threshold (set by way of an air gap or TRIAC) is reached, the capacitor dumps its entire load into a pulse transformer which then steps it up to its final output voltage of 20–60 kV. A variant of the principle is also used in electronic flash and bug zappers, though they rely on a capacitor-based voltage multiplier to achieve their high voltage.
1.6 INVERTER RATINGS
The ratings that you should look at when buying an inverter (depending on the type) are:
- Continuous Rating: This is the amount of power you could expect to use continuously without the inverter overheating and shutting down.
- Half Hour Rating: This is handy as the continuous rating may be too low to run a high energy consumption power tool or appliance, however if the appliance was only to be used occasionally then the half hour rating may well suffice.
- Surge Rating: A high surge is required to start some appliances and once running they may need considerably less power to keep functioning. The inverter must be able to hold its surge rating for at least 5 seconds. TVs and refrigerators are examples of items that require only relatively low power once running, but require a high surge to start.
- IP rating – defines the ability of the inverter seals to prevent water and dust ingress. Although some inverter manufacturers claim high IP ratings suitable for outdoor installation, the quality and location of the seals and ventilation will greatly affect the ability of the inverter to outlast the many years solar installations are expected to work.
- Peak efficiency – represents the highest efficiency that the inverter can achieve.
1.7 IMPORTANT CONSIDERATION FOR INVERTERS
Before going into construction of an inverter, students must know the following:
The AC output frequency of a power inverter device is usually the same as standard power line frequency, 50 or 60 hertz
If the output of the device or circuit is to be further conditioned (for example stepped up) then the frequency may be much higher for good transformer efficiency.
The AC output voltage of a power inverter is often regulated to be the same as the grid line voltage, typically 240 VAC, even when there are changes in the load that the inverter is driving. This allows the inverter to power numerous devices designed for standard line power.
Some inverters also allow selectable or continuously variable output voltages.
A power inverter will often have an overall power rating expressed in watts or kilowatts. This describes the power that will be available to the device the inverter is driving and, indirectly, the power that will be needed from the DC source. Smaller popular consumer and commercial devices designed to mimic line power typically range from 150 to 3000 watts.
Not all inverter applications are solely or primarily concerned with power delivery; in some cases the frequency and or waveform properties are used by the follow-on circuit or device.
The runtime of an inverter is dependent on the battery power and the amount of power being drawn from the inverter at a given time. As the amount of equipment using the inverter increases, the runtime will decrease. In order to prolong the runtime of an inverter, additional batteries can be added to the inverter.
When attempting to add more batteries to an inverter, there are two basic options for installation: Series Configuration and Parallel Configuration.
If the goal is to increase the overall voltage of the inverter, one can daisy chain batteries in a Series Configuration. In a Series Configuration, if a single battery dies, the other batteries will not be able to power the load.
If the goal is to increase capacity and prolong the runtime of the inverter, batteries can be connected in parallel. This increases the overall Ampere-hour(Ah) rating of the battery set.
If a single battery is discharged though, the other batteries will then discharge through it. This can lead to rapid discharge of the entire pack, or even an over-current and possible fire. To avoid this, large paralleled batteries may be connected via diodes or intelligent monitoring with automatic switching to isolate an under-voltage battery from the others.