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TEMPORAL TEMPERATURE WARMING AND SETIMATION OF DIUNEL VARIABILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND EXOTIC HEALTH EFFECT

TEMPORAL TEMPERATURE WARMING AND SETIMATION OF DIUNEL VARIABILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND EXOTIC HEALTH EFFECT
ABSTRACT

Temporal Rising temperatures bring heat waves, spread disease, shift plant and animal habitat and cause extreme weather events, from drought to blizzards.It increases the risk of forest fires in western Siberia—and finds other hot spots threatened by higher air temperature on the Climate Hot Map. To document air temperature, scientists’ measure land surface temperatures a short distance above the ground at stations around the world. These researchers standardize the measurements by accounting for elevation, latitude, time of observation, and type of instrument, and then integrate the information to form a long-term record at a particular location. Scientists combine measurements of land surface temperatures and sea surface temperatures to calculate the global average temperature. They report this average as the difference from a historical base period. For example, NASA compares the global average temperature each year to a base temperature of roughly 57.2° F (14° C)—an average derived from several decades. Three major research centers regularly calculate the global average temperature. Although each center uses a slightly different technique, all the results show the same two trends. The first is that each of the last three decades has been hotter than the one before. The second is that the long-term average global temperature is rising.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.1                                                        INTRODUCTION
Temperature warming is the gradual rise of the earth’s near-surface temperature over approximately the last hundred years. The best available scientific evidence—based on continuous satellite monitoring and data from about 2,000 meteorological stations around the world—indicates that globally averaged surface temperatures have warmed by about 0.3 to 0.6°C since the late nineteenth century. Different regions have warmed—some have even cooled—by different amounts. Generally, the Northern Hemisphere has warmed to a greater extent than the Southern Hemisphere, and mid to high latitudes have generally warmed more than the tropics. Since the advent of satellites, it has become possible for scientists to thoroughly monitor the earth’s climate on a global scale. To examine the historical climate record, however, scientists have to use earlier, sparser forms of measurement, such as long-standing temperature records and less exact “proxy” data, such as the growth of coral, tree rings, as well as information from ice cores, which contain trapped gas bubbles and dust grains representative of the climate in which they were deposited. The bubbles in these cores contain oxygen, particularly oxygen isotopes 180 to 160, which are sensitive to variations in temperature. From the ratio between these isotopes at varying ice depths scientists can reconstruct a picture of the temperature variations over time in specific locations. Greater measurement uncertainty surrounds the earlier parts of this record because of sparse coverage (especially in ocean regions). Despite this uncertainty, the balance of scientific evidence confirms that there has been a discernable warming over the last century.

1.2                                         AIM/OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
These days, there has been greater emphasis on Temperature warming and it severely affected almost all the physical and biological components of the Planet Earth. Apart from the climate change, biodiversity loss and wetland degradation are another important areas on which the impact of climate change are clearly visible.  Thus urgent and serious attention is needed for these issues. Innovative ideas should come out for solving the existing problems and People’s participation should be encouraged for suitable activities in the areas of Temperature warming, Biodiversity and Wetlands.
This work was organized with the following aim and objectives:-

1. To identify the reasons for Temperature warming
2. To highlight the role of human activities for Temperature warming
3. To identify the impact of climate change on wetlands and biodiversity
4. To find out solutions for the existing problems in  the area of biodiversity, wetlands and  Temperature warming
5. To identify different activities carried out by the people all over the world. And the observed results/ benefits of those activities

1.3                                                  CAUSES OF THE STUDY

Gases such as water vapor, methane, and carbon dioxide allow short-wave radiation from the sun to pass through to the surface of the earth, but do not allow long-wave radiation reflected from the earth to travel back out into space. This naturally occurring insulation process—dubbed the greenhouse

1.4                         SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF THE STUDY

Temperature warming continues to affect the whole world causing numerous adverse social and economic consequences. For example, native people who are living in the high altitude areas are currently facing the harmful effects associated with global warming. The most unprotected or exposed continent with regards to climate change is Africa. Similarly, the developing nations are also in danger of succumbing to the effects of climate change, since developed nations have adequate means of fighting off any disaster.  Certain areas like small islands and Arctic countries will be affected adversely if there is a temperature raise of as little as 4 degrees Celsius, whereas above 4 degree Celsius would probably affect the whole world.

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