DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A SOLAR OPERATED AUTOMATIC STREET LIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
- Format: Ms Word Document
- Pages: 73
- Price: N 3,000
- Chapters: 1-5
- Download Full and Complete Project
This project work is titled design and construction an Automatic Street Light Control system.A street lighting is any electrical lighting that is fixed in the road for the illumination of such road or a Street light is a raised source of light on the edge of a road or walkway, which is turned on or lit at a certain time every night.
An Automatic Street Light Control System is a simple and powerful concept, which uses transistor as a switch to switch ON and OFF the street light automatically. By using this system manual works are removed. It automatically switches ON lights when the sunlight goes below the visible region of our eyes. It automatically switches OFF lights under illumination by sunlight. This is done by a sensor called Light Dependant Resistor (LDR) which senses the light actually like our eyes.
By using this system energy consumption is also reduced because now-a-days the manually operated street lights are not switched off properly even the sunlight comes and also not switched on earlier before sunset. In sunny and rainy days, ON time and OFF time differ significantly which is one of the major disadvantage of using timer circuits or manual operation.
This project exploits the working of a transistor in saturation region and cut-off region to switch ON and switch OFF the lights at appropriate time with the help of an electromagnetically operated switch.
Automatic Streetlight needs no manual operation of switching ON and OFF. The system itself detects whether there is need for light or not. When darkness rises to a certain value then automatically streetlight is switched ON and when there is other source of light, the street light gets OFF. The extent of darkness at which the street light to be switched on can also be tailored using the potentiometer provided in the circuit.
Solar Street light are raised light sources which are powered by photovoltaic panels generally mounted on the lighting structure. The photovoltaic panels charge a rechargeable battery, which powers a fluorescent or LED lamp during the night. LED Solar Street Light have energy using sunlight, solar panels during the day to charge the batteries, batteries provide light in the evening, without complex and expensive pipeline, adjustable lighting layout, safety and energy-saving and pollution-free, without manual operation is stable and reliable, saving electricity maintenance-free.
LED Solar Street lights to work continuously for more than 3-5 days in rainy weather, Solar Street Lighting system is consists of LED lamp, solar lamps controller, batteries (included battery incubator) and lighting poles, as well as parts. Solar cell module chosen monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon; LED light head adopts high power brand LED as a light source; Controller placed in the battery compartment with light control, time control, overcharge protection, reverse connection protection, more advanced controller has four seasons adjusted lights, half power capabilities, intelligent charge and discharge function; Specialized battery placed on the ground or the incubator, to be used in valve-regulated lead-acid batteries, gel batteries, lithium iron aluminium batteries or batteries
1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
The purpose of the work is to design and construct Solar street light is raised light sources which are powered by photovoltaic panels generally mounted on the lighting structure. The photovoltaic panels charge a rechargeable battery, which powers a LED lamp during the night.
1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
This system turns on and turns off automatically by sensing outdoor light using a light source. Solar streetlights are designed to work throughout the night. Many can stay lit for more than one night if the sun is not available for a couple of days. Older models included lamps that were not fluorescent or LED. Solar lights installed in windy regions are generally equipped with flat panels to better cope with the winds.
1.3 APPLICATION OF STREET LIGHT
There are three distinct main uses of street lights, each requiring different types of lights and placement. Misuse of the different types of lights can make the situation worse by compromising visibility or safety.
A modest steady light at the intersection of two roads is an aid to navigation because it helps a driver see the location of a side road as they come closer to it and they can adjust their braking and know exactly where to turn if they intend to leave the main road or see vehicles or pedestrians. A beacon light’s function is to say “here I am” and even a dim light provides enough contrast against the dark night to serve the purpose. To prevent the dangers caused by a car driving through a pool of light, a beacon light must never shine onto the main road, and not brightly onto the side road. In residential areas, this is usually the only appropriate lighting, and it has the bonus side effect of providing spill lighting onto any sidewalk there for the benefit of pedestrians. On Interstate highways this purpose is commonly served by placing reflectors at the sides of the road.
Street lights are not normally intended to illuminate the driving route, but to reveal signs and hazards outside of the headlights’ beam. Because of the dangers discussed above, roadway lights are properly used sparingly and only when a particular situation justifies increasing the risk. This usually involves an intersection with several turning movements and much signage, situations where drivers must take in much information quickly that is not in the headlights’ beam. In these situations (A freeway junction or exit ramp) the intersection may be lit so that drivers can quickly see all hazards, and a well designed plan will have gradually increasing lighting for approximately a quarter of a minute before the intersection and gradually decreasing lighting after it. The main stretches of highways remain unlighted to preserve the driver’s night vision and increase the visibility of oncoming headlights. If there is a sharp curve where headlights will not illuminate the road, a light on the outside of the curve is often justified.
If it is desired to light a roadway (perhaps due to heavy and fast multi-lane traffic), to avoid the dangers of casual placement of street lights it should not be lit intermittently, as this requires repeated eye readjustment which implies eyestrain and temporary blindness when entering and leaving light pools. In this case the system is designed to eliminate the need for headlights. This is usually achieved with bright lights placed on high poles at close regular intervals so that there is consistent light along the route. The lighting goes from curb to curb.
1.4 ADVANTAGES OF THE PROJECT
- Low energy consumption: The much lower energy usage of LED lighting can dramatically reduce operating costs.
- Long and predictable lifetime: The lifetime of LED street lights is usually 10 to 15 years, three times the life of current technologies adopted. The much less frequent need to service or replace LEDs means lower maintenance cost.
- More accurate color rendering: The color rendering index is the ability of a light source to correctly reproduce the colors of the objects in comparison to an ideal light source. Improved color rendering makes it easier for drivers to recognize potential road hazards.
- Quick turn on and off: Unlike fluorescent lamps, which take time to heat up once switched on, LEDs come on with full brightness instantly. Unlike mercury vapor, metal halide and sodium vapor lamps (commonly used in street lighting), LEDs do not have a problem restarting immediately (hot ignition) following a brief power failure or inadvertent turn off.
- RoHS compliance: LEDs don’t contain mercury or lead, and don’t release poisonous gases if damaged.
- Less attractive to nocturnal insects: Nocturnal insects are attracted to ultraviolet, blue and green light emitted by conventional light sources.
- Fewer electrical losses: All other types of lighting (except incandescent) require ballasts, additional electronic and/or electromagnetic components, in which some power is consumed.
- Optically efficient lighting equipment: Other types of street lights use a reflector to capture the light emitted upwards from the lamp. Even under the best of conditions, the reflector absorbs some of the light. Also for fluorescent lamps and other lamps with phosphor coated bulbs, the bulb itself absorbs some of the light directed back down by the reflector. The glass cover, called a refractor, helps project the light down on the street in a desired pattern but some light is wasted by being directed up to the sky (light pollution). LED lamp assemblies (panels) do not require reflectors and can be designed to provide the desired coverage without a refractor.
- Reduced glare: Directing the light downward onto the roadway reduces the amount of light that is directed into driver’s eyes.
- Higher light output even at low temperatures: While fluorescent lights are comparably energy efficient, on average they tend to have lesser light output at winter temperatures.
1.5 PROBLEMS AND LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
- There is a main risk from glare. A French Government report published in 2013 agreed that a luminance level higher than 10,000 cd/m2 causes visual discomfort whatever the position of the lighting unit in the field of vision.
- The initial cost of LED street lighting is high and as a consequence it takes several years for the savings on energy to pay for that. The high cost derives in part from the material used since LEDs are often made on sapphire or other expensive substrates.
- LED street lights may make light pollution significantly worse in some areas as they are brighter than the lights that are being replaced and thus are increasing light pollution. According to one America study they may well exacerbate known and possible unknown effects of light pollution on human health
- The replacement of HPS street lighting with LED street lighting is leading to a major change in the colour of the urban sky glow. The higher blue content in LED lighting is likely to increase sky glow considerably affecting bird migration and disrupting diurnal animals.
- There is progressive wear of layers of phosphor in white LEDs, that with time lead to devices being moved from one photobiological risk group to a higher one
1.6 PROJECT WORK ORGANISATION
The various stages involved in the development of this project have been properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis, the project is organized sequentially as follows:
Chapter one of this work is on the introduction to solar street light. In this chapter, the background, significance, objective limitation and problem of solar street light were discussed.
Chapter two is on literature review of solar street light. In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work was reviewed.
Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during the design and construction were discussed.
Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality was analyzed.
Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references.