DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF PUBLIC ADDRESSING SYSTEM
- Format: Ms Word Document
- Pages: 70
- Price: N 3,000
- Chapters: 1-5
- Download Full and Complete Project
CONSTRUCTION OF PUBLIC ADDRESSING SYSTEM
It has become inevitable that there would be communication and due to the inherent limitation of the human voice, the public address system came to being. A public address public address system (PA system) is an electronic sound amplification and distribution system with a microphone, amplifier and loudspeakers, used to allow a person to address a large public, for example for announcements of movements at large and noisy air and rail terminals. Public addressing system is often used in small venues such as school auditoriums, churches, and small bars. PA systems with many speakers are widely used to make announcements in public, institutional and commercial buildings and locations. Intercom systems, installed in many buildings, have microphones in many rooms allowing the occupants to respond to announcements.
The voice signal is passed through a microphone, which converts the sound energy to electrical energy; the energy electrical signal being transmitted is been received and amplified by the amplifier circuit. The amplifier output fed into the loudspeaker which converts the electrical energy back to the original form but amplified sound energy. This project is made up of the power supply unit, the pre-amplifier and power amplifier units, and the tone control unit. This system is capable of delivering of electrical power into an 8 ohm load (loudspeaker).
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENT
- BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
- AIM/OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
- APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT
- LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
- SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
- PROJECT JUSTIFICATION
- PROJECT ORGANISATION
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 REVIEW OF PUBLIC ADDRESSING SYSTEM
2.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF PUBLIC ADDRESSING SYSTEM
2.4 DIFFERENT TYPES PUBIC ADDRESSING SYSTEM
3.0 CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY
3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE SYSTEM
3.2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
3.3 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
3.4 SYSTEM OPERATION
3.5 DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR COMPONENTS USED
4.1 CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE AND TESTING
4.2 CASING AND PACKAGING
4.3 ASSEMBLING OF SECTIONS
4.4 TESTING OF SYSTEM OPERATION
4.5 COST OF PRODUCTION
A public address system allows you to broadcast information to a large group of people, whether you are giving a speech or playing live or recorded music. Public address systems typically consist of input sources, preamplifiers, control and monitoring equipment, and loudspeakers. Input sources refer to the microphones that provide a sound input for the system. These input sources are fed into the preamplifiers. The pre amplified signals are then passed into the audio power amplifiers.
These amplifiers will amplify the audio signals to an adequate speaker line level. In view of the above, one can now say that the public address system is an electronic amplification system used for communication in public areas
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
A public address system comprises electrical equipment to greatly amplify a speaker’s voice so it will reach a much larger assemblage than he could speak to unaided. Beginning with the presidential conventions of the two major parties in 1920 and the inaugural address of President Harding in March 1921, when a special address system installed by the telephone engineers enabled him to address an audience estimated at 125,-000, there followed in rapid succession, many public events demonstrating the value of such systems. One of the most notable of these occurred on Armistice Day 1921, when the speeches, prayers and music at Arlington, Virginia, were heard, not only by 100,000 persons gathered there at the National Cemetery, but by some 35,000 in New York City and 20,000 in San Francisco. On this occasion the three public address systems, one for each of these cities, were joined by long distance telephone circuits.
The fundamental requirements of a satisfactory public address system are naturalness of reproduction and wide range of output volume. The meeting of these two requirements for music proves more difficult than for speech.
The public address system here described is most readily considered in three sections—“pick-up” apparatus which is placed in the neighborhood of the speaker and converts his words into undulatory electric currents; a vacuum tube amplifier for amplifying these currents; and a “receiver-projector” for reconverting the current into sound waves and distributing the sound over all of the audience. In the present system each of these three parts of the equipment has been designed with the intention of making it as nearly distortionless as possible, so that the various parts might be adaptable for audiences ranging in size from possibly one thousand to several hundred thousand, and might also be used in connection with the long distance telephone lines and with either radio broadcasting or receiving stations. One of the larger public address systems is easily capable of magnifying a speaker’s voice as many as 10,000 times.
The pick-up device whether of the carbon microphone variety or a condenser transmitter need not be placed close to the speaker’s lips but will operate satisfactorily when four or five feet away. The loud-speaking receiver mechanism is so designed that it will carry a power of several watts with small distortion. Under normal conditions, 40 watts distributed among a number of receiver-projectors arranged in a circle is ample to reach an audience of 700,000 persons.
1.2 AIM OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the audience. In public speaking, as in any form of communication, there are five basic elements, often
Constructing a public addressing system is to construct an electronic sound amplification and distribution device with a microphone, amplifier and loudspeakers, used to allow a person to address a large public, for example for announcements of movements at large and noisy air and rail terminals with ac and battery power source.
The major objective of this project is to design and construct a public address system with relatively unique operational characteristics that is capable of delivering of electrical power into an 8 Ohms load (loudspeaker). This will be achieved with adequate tone controls and mixer stages so as to enable communication or reproduction of speech and recorded music in buildings and institutions. In this work, the transmitter communicates with the receiver wirelessly.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Public addressing system is often used in small venues such as school auditoriums, churches, and small bars. PA systems with many speakers are widely used to make announcements in public, institutional and commercial buildings and locations. Public addressing system is naturalness of reproduction and wide range of output volume. The meeting of these two requirements for music proves more difficult than for speech.
This system enables the speaker or host to convey the desired message in an audible manner to all the guests/visitors. The volume calibration can be in accordance with the venue’s capability. Venue types can be an open ground stage or an enclosed auditorium.
Loudness generates an automatic response in any crowd to pay attention to the voice. This enables the speaker to make important announcements effectively. This also allows them to give instructions clearly.
In a high populated area, it is important to evacuate everyone safely in a case of emergency. Provision of proper and immediate instructions is great way to evacuate everyone safely and quickly. Our PA system helps you to deliver loud and clear instructions to all your employees, ensuring that they clear the area without panicking.
1.4 APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT
Public addressing system is often used in small venues such as school auditoriums, churches, and small bars. PA systems with many speakers are widely used to make announcements in public, institutional and commercial buildings and locations.
1.5 PROJECT JUSTIFICATION
Over the ages, science and technology has been developing with new inventions in various fields; including the increase in modifications on existing technology all gearing towards improving effectiveness and reliability of equipment and achieving to a great degree miniaturization and optimal cost.
This project is backed by my interest in the area of electronics and communication, and having been groomed to a great extent with introductions into the various fields of electrical and electronics engineering, with the knowledge in principles of telecommunications, telecommunication engineering.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
This system is for public address. For power supplies, it uses a 220/12Vac transformer for the receiver, amplifier and loudspeaker units. It has a power On/Off button with volume control while the transmitting side uses 9v battery.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
INTERFERENCE: Interference can be a problem. There are lots of devices that emit radio waves. If those radio waves are on the same frequency as with the transmitter and receiver, you could get some garbled signals as you listen to the output. Dropped signals can also be an issue — if a transmitter or receiver stops working or drops out, it will affect your listening experience.
BANDWIDTH: Another problem is bandwidth. Wired PA can carry a lot of information in the form of electrical signals. Audio may seem less full or rich. It’s a subjective element that can be difficult to put into words.
Another drawbacks of public addressing (PA) systems is the cabling that is required, which can be expensive, difficult and time-consuming to install. A wired PA system suffers from a number of drawbacks, that is to say: being “fixed” – it being difficult to relocate the speakers subsequent to installation; loss of operation and/or functionality in the event of one of more of the cables failing; and loss of operation and/or functionality in the event of a power outage.
1.8 PROJECT WORK ORGANISATION
The various stages involved in the development of this project have been properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis, the project is organized sequentially as follows:
Chapter one of this work is on the introduction to public addressing system. In this chapter, the background, significance, objective limitation and problem of solar power inverter were discussed.
Chapter two is on literature review of public addressing system. In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work was reviewed.
Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during the design and construction were discussed.
Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality was analyzed.
Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references.