TEACHER EVALUATION AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
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Teacher evaluation is a function of human decision-making resulting from a value judgment about how good or weak a particular work performance is using information that compares the actual work performance with predetermined performance standards (Grobler, 2013). Appraisal comes from the work “praise” (to express warm approbation) in an effort to make teacher evaluation more palatable. Common synonyms for evaluation are assessment and appraisal.
Teacher evaluation is normative in nature because a value judgment is given. This value judgment must be weighed against definite criteria of fairness and should always fulfill a certain function (Danielson, 2011). Teacher evaluation fulfills two main functions namely; a formative function for the development of professional teaching skills and a summative function for selection and as a basis for grading and promotion (Isore, 2009).
Teacher self-evaluation is considered as a prime means of professional optimization (Piggott-Irvine, 2013). School leaders also have a crucial role in engaging teachers in self-reflection about their own practice, and in developing a culture of evaluation alongside ambitious goals, according to the school context and challenges. The majority of schools have implemented annual discussions between school leaders and teachers to evaluate the fulfillment of the personal objectives set up during the previous year and to establish further personal objectives (UNECO, 2007 as cited in Isore, 2009).
In Nigeria, the current teacher evaluation system is often describe as ‘not very fair’, ‘not very efficient’, and ‘generating malaise and sometimes suffering’ for both evaluated teachers and evaluators, because it is based on administrative procedures rather than a comprehensive scheme with a clear improvement purpose. Teacher evaluation is supposed to be undertaken on a regular basis, as an integral part of the work and duties of the teacher. Secondary level teachers are evaluated by a panel composed of an inspector and the school principal (Okumbe, 2009).
However, the intended frequent evaluations often fall short of expectations. First, the frequency of evaluations is not legally fixed, and is arbitrarily determined by the inspectors’ availability. This is a cause for concern regarding the fairness of the system-because teachers working under the same rules receive feedback at diverse intervals- as well as regarding its efficacy – the average interval between two evaluations being 6-7 years in secondary education, deemed much too long.
Moreover, the workload is such that concerns might be raised regarding the value of the feedback. An inspector takes responsibility for between 350 and 400 teachers’ practices. As a consequence, the inspectors themselves report malaise and frustration associated with the evaluation process, mainly because they feel that they have little impact on teaching practices and cannot develop their competences and skills for teaching enhancement. Their role is sometimes de facto restricted to control the abuses within the profession. Evidence on the teacher’s practice is gathered through the o observation of a teaching session, followed by an interview with the teacher (Pochard 2008 as cited in Isore, 2009).
Teachers combine their relevant skills, experiences and positive attitudes towards the profession, in order to raise the quality of the students’ academic performance to high and reputable standards (Mbiti, 2014). This combination is achieved through instructional appraisal, an aspect which has motivated the researcher to initiate this study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is surprising that despite the efforts of government, individuals and non-government agencies in enhancing the educational development in Nigeria, the academic performance of students has declined greatly. This maybe caused due to the problem of evaluation of teachers, lack of appraisal of classroom environment, problem of evaluation of teachers professional responsibilities and lack of appraisal of teachers on classroom instruction (service delivery). If this is not checkmated, our graduates from the secondary schools may not be employable and those who may further in their University Education may experience difficulties because of their background. Consequently, our educational system will not attain its objective of producing qualified and competent product. Therefore, this research work will seeks to examine teacher evaluation and students’ academic performance in secondary schools.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to:
1. To examine the extent to which evaluation of teachers on planning and preparation of teaching material influences students’ academic performance
2. To assess how appraisal of teachers on classroom instruction (serve delivery) influences students’ academic performance in secondary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The study is being guided with the following research questions:
1. To what extent does teachers’ evaluation on planning and preparation of teaching material influence students’ academic performance in secondary schools?
2. How does appraisal of teachers on classroom instruction (service delivery) influence students’ academic performance in secondary schools?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Ho1: There is no significant difference between teachers’ evaluation on planning and preparation of teaching materials and students’ academic performance in secondary schools
Ho2: There is no significant difference between appraisal of teachers’ classroom instruction (service delivery) and students’ academic performance in secondary schools