EFFECT OF MODERN NIGRIA FILM ON NIGRIANS
(A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU URBAN DEWELLERS)
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Television in modern world is the major part of entertainment. In 1956 a videotape was used for the first with help of video tape, events are recorded for later broadcast.
In ninety – Ninety, the coming of home videos in Nigeria, has enabled a massive local film production and these films are almost taking over the position of foreign films in most Nigeria homes.
Thus this present study aimed to find out the effect of Nigeria film on the ethnicity problem in Nigeria and how Nigerian film audiences are affected through the contents of these film produced. Recently much have been written on the impact of television programmes especially the modern Nigeria films on Nigerian.
The local films which is said to be proliferating almost every day some without bases is suggested to undergo through scrutiny before making it for peoples consumption since this studies, objectives is to find out the effect of Nigeria films on Nigerians it will all so avow or disput “Ousemen” who states that cinema in African play a negative role that majority of films shown in African are product of cultural alienation.
Infact the theories and studies revised produced effective background for better and countermary result to effect changes in Nigeria film production.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background of study
Statement of the research problem
Objectives of the study
Significance of the study
Conceptual and Operational Definition
Limitation of the study
Review of the Literature
Review and Summary
Data Analysis and presentation
Discussion of Finding
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Film is an instrument of communication that informs and educates through entertainment. It is also a motion picture, which as a reflection of the society reproducers the action of human being in thin – coated roll or sheet of flexible materials used for photography.
Researchers for a long time now, have focussed their minds on television viewing and parents – children perception of violence. The attitude exhibited by parents and children after watching violence programmes on television some researched on the effectiveness of Nigeria television drama, other researched the effects of Nigeria audience on television programmes and effects of the exposure to electronic media on English language pattern of Nigerian children as well effect of mass media programmes on rural development. Nigeria films that sprang up in early do’s as an electronic media that covers effects of television programmes, language formation, violence, rural development via electronic media programmes.
This project topic is chosen to streamline the effects of Nigeria film on Nigeria citizens using Enugu Urban dwellers as sample. Cinema by now should mean both motion pictures for theatres and film for television is simultaneously an art and industry because it means of creation and its system of distribution involve expensive technology. This has been true since the early days of public viewing parlor when percent illuminated a 50 foot –long scene. Modern distribution of colour television into living rooms for a 50 second commercial only infacts the problem in terms of the cost involved and the relative quality of the production.
What effect film as artistic, social and economic phenomenon has on the cultural values of both creators and viewers is an international problem of the first magnitude, since cinema or felm is a world wide language that can be grasped by the iluterate as well as by the educated. Nothingless than the control of man’s minds and emotion is at stake. Aesthetics, in others case, has become linked both with economic and with political action responsive to the uses of visual communication is cinema or films. According to international encydopedia of social science is the major cultural force in the second half twenty century.
The relation between chose who create the picture and those pays the cost is conflict between the front office and second stage as complex as shakespeares efforts to gain the good graces of his patrons. What film is the degree of interdependence between artistry and finances.
The question cannot be dismissed as a matter of preference. What is art to one may indeed be an industry to another and vice versa. The inseparability of the equation makes it difficult to evaluate. Infact, the Under of film art and picture industry seem as though a marriage contracted in hell, lived on earth and rewarded in heaven.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Films influence have relation with problems associated with film production which starts with a motion picture. An impovenshed painter may start his work once he has brushes, he can even steal hair out from a cut to make a bush, but a film director will find that cameras, lenses, lights, developing tanks editing apparatus are relatively inexpensive compare with actor salaries, set construction, or shooting on location.
Film is the only art form solely dependent on machinery. The electronic extension of motion pictures and television is more expensive and involves more machinery. Never before in man’s artistic history has an artist been so sub – ordinate to the means which shape his ends, and conversely, never before has the patrone or sponsor or producers been dependent on talent for the utilization of his machinery for production, distribution and exhibition. Thus influence the viewers or audience.
A write – director in cinema or film is like an orchestral conductor, his scrip, or score cannot be expericenced without the collaboration of mynad different craftsmen employing different instruments. They should ideally be hired for their specific competence in dealing with a special challenge. This is a problem of correct casting of craftsman, under strict Union regulations of specialty or seniority the write – director is obliged to accept the run of mill workers who is not generate include to support artistic adventures. Also, the numbers of employees allotted to an assignment are prescribed by union rules. There are qualitative considerations discle from the quantity of workers assistance and collaborators.
Since the basic concepts a motion picture must be filtered through many individuals before the picture reaches its final version and since these concepts are primary visual, the relation of the number of individuals involved to the degree of aesthetic coherence in the picture’s imagery is obviously crucial. This influences the film make up and production output and again effects the audiences the audiences who are beneficiaries of the output conematic laws are postulated and films are censored even in Nigeria that started film production recently infact, the greater the number of collaborators in the creation of a motion picture or films the less coherent it’s imagery will be. The imagery then is as well influenced to the vieners.
One will ask, to what degree close the production problems of cinema or films influenced the cinema or films, since it has been found that there are problems faced by the director of the sources” which is either a story or body of factual materials. The sources usually may be a novel, a play, a short story or an” original treatment “. It may even be a social essay a political theme, or a report on actualities.
The authors of the sources will usually have this ideas and emotions translated into script by other writers, the final shooting script may be prepared by yet another batch of writers including dialogue specialists. Such has been the prevailing pattern in Hollywood’s films and television studios , the same is true of italy, France, Yugosslavia, poland, the soviett Union, Japan. Nationallist China and Chinese peoples Republic before the advent of Nigeria films in 1990’s though there hand been existence of drama on stage, on television screen and on and on and radio. Thus, scripting of any drawn affects it’s audience to the communication medium chosen in dissemination.
Again, scripting of any given film affects it’s audience ideas depending on the pre –conceived ideology, norms and values of the society.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The mass media as an institute have been with certain manifest generate functions entertainment, information, education and survellance important as all the functions may be, according to lany Banker in his book communication” it is primary soured and used for the their (mass media) revenue (1) entertainment has been severally defined as “treatment of occupying attention, agreeable, that can afford interest of amusement (2) or satisfaction of wants (3) and an entertainment medium banker said it’s one that provides the consumer with some sort of escape or diversion from the results and anxieties from the realities and anxieties of study daily living(4).
Among the films that offer entertainment to the Nigeria audience includes such films as comedy films, Epic, true life stories, advenuous films and light fiction.
Despite strong arguments by various people including social commentators on Nigerian film, it’s themes as avenue of Nigeria entertainment can influence such entertainment on Nigeria audience, it is perhaps certain that entertainment from mass media is of globas importance and attracts incrediblel following because of the mass appeal they have among heterogeneous group cutting across ethic boundaries.
The most prominent in the mass media is television. Television, despite being considerably new as a height in entertainment, which is primarily due to it’s ability do use audio visual means of communication and lately colour. Films and few seconds advert presentation have become the major tools of television industry in offering entertainment. Television also provides the secreen for private view of films at homes and at individuals leisure times. Therefore Nigeria Television stations in much of their air – time are filled with locally produced films which are produced by private film companies like, moving movie production, producers of Rattle Snake, Andy best production that proceed God’s incarnate, Christopher Anyanyi, producer and director of “my soul”
However, some drama series have been produced in the past by the Nigeria television stations
Introduction unit,which contributed immensely to the advent of Nigeria made films.Examples of such drama series arw “mirror in the sun” sponsored by the lever Brothers Nigeria PLC
“Super story” also sponsored by lever Brothers PLC Checkmate sponsored by lever Brothers PLC.
The popular television comedy “ Bassey and company” produced and recorded by old anambra Broadcasting Services Television channel 50 Enugu by the saros international productions limited. The drama, which appeared on television in April 1985, kept many viewers glued to the Nigeria television Authority (NTA) every Wednesday by 8 30pm .
Bassey and company while exposing the chicaneries of the typical lagosian, it also managed to generate enough fun and laughter to put across the bitter message. In a larger context, the drama series mirrored Nigeria as well as wrappeed up common extents which happened daily in government, business and social interactions. The same thing is with the Nigeria films produced and watched today. The only difference today is that films and drama producers do not seek air time sponsors because they producer and sell them directly to the masses.
The aim of thus study therefore to x – ray the role and effect of Nigeria film productions generally, but the study will not use any film in particular to measure the effectiveness of Nigeria film production on t he Nigeria audience it will go a along way to evaluate the response of the Nigeria audience towards themes of Nigeria film produce recurring to the mind what economic status can do any countries film produce.
1.4 SIGNIFIANCE ON THE STUDY
The effects of film production of Nigeria audience have been the sources of controversy some of the controversies stem from the fact that adults addicted to watching films are regard as being mentally Immature to the negative influenced on children especially violent films. Others also stand at any point in time to prove that language formation. This project will either be bed to disprove those nations or prove it right with more convincing points.
Again, some believe those effects of film is confined to reader himself and seldom involves any attclude change and therefore is never accompanied by any overt be behaviour, this work is aimed towards enunciating the overt behaviour as it regards films made in Nigeria and watch or viewed by Nigerians
Equally of note is that such content used as entertainment will have been proved wrong or right that it provides rescation and diversion to point vicarious ties of depicted behavours and socially innocuous release of aggression from one person to another
Though, in a study corducted by Joseph Igbinedwn on the “Audeicne Attitude towards films on Nigerian television” Resulted that more men (45%) prefer entertainment programmes than women (27%) women on the other hand 73%) prefer educational programmes to any form of entertainment than men (59%)
Based on these controvesies for and again of film as an entertainment medium. This study also tries to study among other things the films production problems of finance , that is economical factor influence on films made in Nigeria and economic influence on both the Nigeria as well as the importance of Nigeria audience through the attempt made to study audiences characteristics of Nigeria films.
Furthermore, the study will be important in assessing the effectiveness of Nigerians films on Nigeria audience as regards social changes. Nigeria film will be said to be a new development, which has not up to a clecade . So research have not. Focus their attention to it, to evaluate it’s effectiveness it audience. This is the aim and aspiration of this study.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
This study, the effect of Nigeria films on the Nigeria a audience, posed many questions out of which are following:-
- How does economic situation in Nigeria influence film production.
- Does the effect of Nigeria economy on Nigeria film influence Nigeria films audience.
- To what extent does Nigeria film director/ producers utilize the available human and natural resources to cause social changes in the lives of Nigeria film audience
- To what extent have Nigeria films provided entertainment as a sources of relaxation to it’s Nigeria audience.
- To what extent has Nigeria film promoted cultural values of different Nigeria ethnic groups in fostering nationalism.
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
A hypothesis is a statement of relationship between or among variables which are subject to scientific test or study thus for the purpose of this study the following hypothesis were postulated.
H1 Nigerian films affect it’s Nigeria audience positively.
H0 Nigeria films affect it’s Nigeria audience negatively
H2 Nigerian films reflect good image of good societies and thus societal changes.
H0 Nigerian films reflect bad image of the societies though proffer punishment to evil doers but does not cause societal change.
H3 Nigerian films offer good entertainment to it’s audience
H0 Nigeria films is not a good entertainment medium.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Aesthetic: In appreciation of the beauty of arts such as film and motion picture.
- Audeicne: Gathering of persons for the purpose of hearing a speaker, singer etc and viewing an act on film or threatre. Then persons may not be together but may be within hearing viewing.
- Camera: Apparatus for taking still and motion pictures. It receives light images and transforms them for broadcasting live, videotapers or prints.
- Censor: Authority to examine books, play film etc and to cut out anything regarded as immoral.
- Cinema : Is motion pictures as an art form or an industry. It is also a theatre in which films are shown.
- Cinematic Law: Is a photographic rules and regulations as regards to motion pictures.
- Compose: This is the act of making up or forming parts into whole example pictures or sentence into a whole study.
- Commercial : Financial by changes made for advertising a product in a film, television or radio.
- Communication: This is the act of disseminating information or ideas that may have be sourced.
- Evaluation:- An act of finding out the value of acceptance of a particular message by decoders from encoders.
- Factual material: This is material that is based on facts.
- Film: Is an instrument of communication than informs and educates through entertainment with motion pictures.
- Film production: The act of putting together of motion picture for entertainment
- Dialogue specialist::- A person who specialize in writing in the form of a conversion of talk.
- Interdependence: This is dependence of any and / from another.
- Influence: Power to affect somebody or person’s characters, beliefs or action through examples, fear admiration etc.
- Lens: piece of glass like substance with one or both sides curved for use in camer as
- Motion pictures: Moving causing pictures or photographs to start moving. It is called cinema, film or movie.
- Nigeria film: Films made in Nigeria by Nigerians.
- Original Treatment: Films produced as a result of the conters though or expression accordingly .
- Picture: Film shown in cinema or what is seen on a television screen.
- Picture Director: A person who tells or gives instructions on how pictures or film would be produced.
- Picture producer: A person who arranges in sequential order the pictures into films.
- Shooting on location: The location at which a particular scene or act is short and acted.
- Scrip writing: hard writing cursive characters in initiation of handwriting. It is also writing manuscript or typescript of an actor’s apart in a play, talk, discussion, drama etc. to be broadcasting.
- Nigeria films are nationally watched
- Nigerian films are industrially produced by Nigerians.
- Nigeria films are instruments for national developments and social changes amongst the citizenry.