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The Impact Of Improved Infrastructure And Efficient Cargo Delivery In Nigeria Port (A Case Study Of Calabar Port Complex)

THE IMPACT OF IMPROVED INFRASTRUCTURE AND EFFICIENT CARGO DELIVERY IN NIGERIA PORT (A CASE STUDY OF CALABAR PORT COMPLEX)

THE IMPACT OF IMPROVED INFRASTRUCTURE AND EFFICIENT CARGO DELIVERY IN NIGERIA PORT (A CASE STUDY OF CALABAR PORT COMPLEX)

 

ABSTRACT

This report examines the impact of improved infrastructure and efficient Cargo Delivery in Nigeria Port (A case study of Calabar Port Complex). The research also carried out a review of related literature in chapter to give the study the necessary theoretical background for the research work. The literature the Background of Marine Infrastructural Development, Current Marine Infrastructural Development in Nigeria, Channel Marking, buoys and lighthouse development in Nigeria were. The research design used in this report is descriptive design, utilizing questionnaire method to obtain information from the respondents for this project. Primary data were collected from the primary source which questionnaire was used as an instrument of data collection while secondary data were sources from textbooks, journals, newspapers and the internet were employed. The data were presented on a frequency distribution table and analyzed using simple percentage .While hypothesis was tested using chi- square test. The findings indicates Port infrastructure, if fully developed in Nigeria, has a big role to play in the development of our shipping sector by ensuring efficient cargo delivery from our ports. From the findings, it is also discovered that the major causes of poor infrastructural facilities in our ports are mainly from poor maintenance culture among Nigerians as well as poor finance in providing the necessary facilities needed in our ports. It is also discovered from the findings that bad infrastructure affect efficient cargo delivery in Nigeria ports especially that of Calabar Port because of inefficient draft, bigger ships find it mostly difficult to berth in the port. The findings also reveal that high costs of cargo delivery in Nigeria ports can be linked to inefficient cargo delivery in our ports. To this end the study recommended that Government and private terminal operators should provided the needed infrastructural facilities at the port to ensure efficient and effective cargo clearance and delivery. Also adequate funds should be made available by Governments and banks to ensure effective implementation of needed port facilities.

 

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

A port is an area on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or shipment to or from land. Port sites are designated to enhance the access to land and inland water, market demand, and sheltered from the wind and waves. The use of the sea as a means of transportation in Nigeria dates back to the 15th century (1485), when the Portuguese sailed in Lagos with their ships mainly to trade in artifacts in Benin City. In the days before the independence to date, the marine industry of the nation is characterized by the domination of foreign ships and / or carriers in developed market economies of Western Europe and America.

Shipping by cargo delivery has for a long time been recognized as one of the strong catalysts for socio-economic development. Back in 1776, Adams Smith noted that “A business working in a country town without links to the outside world can never achieve high levels of efficiency because its small market will limit the degree of specialization”. Because shipping is one of the cheapest and efficient modes of transportation over long distances, it has since the ancient times been at the forefront of opening up of the world, and thus a major driver of the process of globalization.

 

Shipping by cargo delivery, especially container shipping, has been both a cause and effect of globalization. Container shipping could lay claim to being the world’s first truly global industry. In fact, container shipping could claim to be the industry which, more than any other, makes it possible for a truly global economy to work. It connects countries, markets, businesses and people, allowing them to buy and sell goods on a scale not previously possible. It is now impossible to imagine world trade, and ultimately our lives as consumers, without container shipping. Shipping has led to a phenomenal growth in world merchandise trade, which has consistently grown faster than output. In 2006, goods loaded at ports worldwide are estimated at 7.42 billion tonnes, up from 5.98 billion tonnes in 2000. The value of total world exports increased from US$6,454 billion in 2002 to US$40,393 billion in 2005, representing an increase of 64 per cent. (See Fig 4).

According to Kummi (2007), shipping has emerged as one of the most powerful socio-economic and political forces shaping the world today. The phenomenon of shipping is moving the world towards increasing and irreversible integration of economic, social, cultural and political systems. Globalization through shipping trade has “decoupled time and space” resulting in the “death of distance”. Thanks to globalization, the once big world has been transformed into “one little village”.

 

Shipping has been one of the main causes and effects of globalization. The impact of globalization on shipping, especially container shipping, has been most phenomenal. Indeed, shipping connects countries, markets, businesses and people, allowing them to produce, buy and sell goods on a scale not previously possible. It therefore becomes necessary, if not imperative for countries to try to evaluate impact of improved infrastructure and efficient cargo delivery in Nigeria port.

Consequently, this study is an appraisal of the impact of improved infrastructure and efficient cargo delivery in Nigeria port.

 

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The following objectives are stated to guide the study.

  1. To examine the impact of improved infrastructure on efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian port
  2. To determine the major causes of poor infrastructure in Nigerian Ports.
  3. To identify and assess the effects of bad infrastructure in efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian ports.
  4. To investigate the major category of port infrastructure.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study is worth pursuing because improved infrastructure will enhances port cargo delivery in Nigerian ports, increased port productivity and performance and increased through put variables such as ship turn round time, cargo traffic loss through other ports e.g Cotonou, vessel delay time etc. the efficient infrastructure tends to help tackle port congestion problems, making Nigerian ports a hub in the West African Region, protect vessels and quays wall against damages as well as allowing for smooth maneuvering of vessels alongside the quays during berthing. The agencies of government will find the recommendations of the research useful on how to ensure efficient cargo delivery through improved infrastructure. It is also believed that the study will help investors knowing where they can safely invest their money in port infrastructures. The study will serve as a guide to more competent researchers to carry out further investigation. In summer, those to benefit from this research on completion include; government agencies, investors, general public, researcher/cadets, banks, maritime regulators and experts, marine insurance companies.

1.5 Research Questions

The following research questions are hereby stated for the study.

  1. To what extent do improved infrastructure ensure efficient cargo delivery in Calabar Port, Nigeria?
  2. What are the major causes of poor infrastructure in Nigerian Ports?
  3. Does bad infrastructure affect efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian ports?
  4. What are the major categories of port infrastructures?

1.6 Research Hypothesis

  1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between improved infrastructures and efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian ports.

H1: There is significant relationship between improved infrastructures and efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian ports.

  1. Ho: Poor maintenance culture and inadequate finance is not the major causes of poor infrastructure in Nigerian ports.

H1:Poor maintenance and inadequate finance is the major causes of poor infrastructures in Nigerian ports.

  1. Ho: Bad infrastructure does not have negative effect in efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian ports.

H1: Bad infrastructure have negative effect in efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian ports.

  1. Ho: There is no significance relationship between marine and overland infrastructure.

H1: There is significance relationship between marine and overland infrastructure.

1.7 Basic Assumptions of the Study

The following assumptions were made in the study;

Improved infrastructure ensures efficient cargo delivery.

The distributed questionnaires will be collected and used adequately without bias.

That Calabar port shall provide a true and unbiased information for the study being the case study.

The supervisor will give the researcher adequate guidance.

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